ZAKAT (The Third Pillar of Islam)
ALLAH ordained every Muslim who possesses a certain amount a certain amount of property to pay annually of these possessions the Zakah to the poor, or to the other categories mentioned in the Quran.
The minimum amount in the gold liable to payment of zakat is 20 miskals ( miskal is equal to 4 68 grams ) and the minimum amount of Silver is 200 dirhams ( dirham is equal to 3.12 grams ) or an equivalent some of current money to these amounts.
There is also a minimum amount for goods of commerce liable to payment of zakat as for grains, its minimum amount is 300 saa’a (about 650 kg ) .the minimum amount for real estates prepared for sale should be estimated in accordance with its value but if the real estate is prepared for lease, the estimation is consid ered in accordance with its rent.
The annual amount of Zakah fixed on money, gold, silver and goods of commerce is 2.5% As for cereals grins and fruits, the fixed amount of Zakah fixed on money, gold, silver and of 10% the crop is the yield of an easily irrigated land (i.e. a land irrigated by rivers springs or rain). On the other hand if the land is irrigated with difficulty by man mad means as pump or other lifting apparatus, the amounts of Zakah become only 5% Zakah of grains fruits and crops is due at the harvest time. In case if a land yields two or other harvests annually, one should pay the Zakah for each harvest independently the amount of Zakah due on camels, cows, and sheep is explained in books dealing with this subject. Zakah is enjoined by the Qura’n.
وما أومرو الا ليعبدو الله مخلصين له الدين حنفاء ويقيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة وذلك دين القيمة
(سورة البينة : آية 5)
And they are ordered naught else than to serve Allah, in sincere devotion to pay the Zakah, that is the true religion. (Qura’n98:5)
In fact, the Zakah has a wonderful social role. It soothes the poor’s feelings, satisfies their needs, and strengthens the bonds of mutual love among poor and rich.
Zakah is not the only mean that Islam has used to maintain social solidarity and cooperation among Muslims, but Islam imposed also on the rich to support the poor at times of famines. Islam prohibits the Muslim form being sated with food while his neighbor is hungry. Islam enjoined also Zakat-al-fitr (fitrfeast-Due) on all Muslims and has made it a duty on every one of them to distribute a saa (a cubic measure) of elementary substances for himself and a similar saa for each one of those whom he supports, including his servants. The amount should be distributed among the poor, before the prayer of Feast day. Islam imposed also expiatory gifts on the Muslim who commits perjury (that is to feed ten poor or clothe them, or to fast thee days, if he is unable to feed or clothe the poor). The Muslim is commanded to perform his vows, and practice voluntary charity. Allah promised to give the best reward for those who spend their money for His sake. Their reward will not only be multiplied to ten folds, but to 700 folds, or even to a boundless number.
On the authority of Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him), who said:
The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “There will be seven persons sheltered under the shade of Allah on the Day of Judgement when there will be no other shade be-besides His shade. They are: a just ruler; a young man who passes his youth in worship and service of Allah – the Lord of Honor and Glory ; one whose heart is perpetually attached to the mosque; two such persons who love each other for the sake of Allah, they joined together for His sake and parted for His sake; a man who is invited for sin by a rich beautiful woman but declines, saying: I fear Allah; One who gives charity in a secret way without making a show, in a way that his left hand does not know what his right hand spent; and one who remembers Allah in solitude so that his eyes overflow ( fill with tears).
(Bukhari and Muslim)
SAWM RAMADAN (The Fourth Pillar of Islam)
The fourth pillar of Islam is to fast during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Hijri calendar.
Before the dawn of the first day of Ramadan, the Muslim in-tends to fast this month, and abstains every day from drinking, eating, or practicing sex till after the sun sets, He performs the fasting till the end of the month of Ramadan, fulfilling by that the commandment of Allah, and seeking His pleasure.
Fasting has innumerable benefits. When man refrains himself from lusts, abstains from eating and drinking for the sake of Allah, he does this only for one purpose; this is to obey Allah, worship Him and fill his heart with God-fearing.
Fasting has also innumerable hygienic, economic and social benefits which are perceived only be those who perform it with strong belief and sincere faith. The Quran states,
(( يل أيها الذين آمنوا كتب عليكم الصيام كما كتب على الذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون))
إلى قوله تعالى:
شهر رمضان الذي أنزل فيه القران هدى للناس وبينات من الهدى والفرقان فمن شهد منكم الشهر فليصمه ومن كان مريضا أو على سفر فعدة من أيام أخر يريد الله بكم اليسر ولا يريد بكم العسر ولتكملوا لعدة ولتكبروا الله على ما هداكم ولعلكم تشكرن
(الآيات 183-15 سورة البقرة )
“O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as was prescribed for those before you, so that you may be God-fearing”…
“The month of Ramadan, in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of guidance and the criterion (of right and wrong), whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and who is sick or on a journey let him fast the same number of other days. Allah desires for you ease; He desire not hardship for you. You should complete the period and you should magnify Allah for having guided you and you may be thankful.” (Qur’an 2: 183 – 185).
According to rules of the Qur’an and the prophetic traditions it is permissible for a sick Muslim, a Muslim travelling on a journey, a menstruating woman, or a confined woman not to fast, but to make up for what they missed.
Foster-mothers and pregnant women are also permitted to break their fast if fasting will harm them or their babies, but they should compensate this fully by fasting other equal days. If man drinks or eats absent-mindedly which fasting, he should get out what is still in his mouth as soon as he remembers that he is fasting. In this case his fasting is not broken and he can continue his fasting.
Hajj (The Fifth Pillar of Islam)
Pilgrimage (Hajj) is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is a duty for a Muslim to perform pilgrimage to the House of Allah once in lifetime, however it is permissible to him to do pilgrimage voluntarily more than once.
Pilgrimage has innumerable benefits:
In fulfilling this service, man expresses his devotion to Allah, not only by performing rites which need physical effort, but he expresses also his deep spiritual devotion to Allah and spends of his money for His sake.
Pilgrimage is an annual Muslim-congress, attended by Muslims from all over the world.
Muslims in pilgrimage meet in one place, Makkah, dressed in one uniform, worshipping Allah, the One God, and performing the same rites during the fixed period of Hijj. There is on discrimination between them since all are Allah’s bondsmen. No white man has preference over a black man, neither the rich over the poor. In this way, Muslims are acquainted one to the other, cooperate one with the other, and they remember the day when they will be resurrected and gathered before Allah who will account them for their deeds. Thus they prepare themselves for the Hereafter and do their best to obey Allah, their Lord.
The Kaaba is the Qibla of all Muslims. They direct their faces towards it when they perform their prayers. It should be well-Known that all the rites of pilgrimage, as circumambulating round the kaaba, attending Arafat, Muzdalafa, and staying for several for several days in Mina have one objective that is to worship Allah according to the method He commanded during the time He fixed. Worshipping is neither dedicated to the Kaaba nor to any of these other places which are no more than objects created by Allah and that can never bring benefit or cause harm to any one. Worshipping is dedicated to Allah alone, the Lord of everything, Who alone has the Absolute Sovereignty and Power.
According to Muslim faith, all forms of worshipping are enjoined by Allah and should never be based on individual judgement or taste. Therefore, hadn’t Allah commanded people to perform pilgrimage to the Sacred House at Makkah, Muslims would have never performed it. Allah say in the Qur’an:
” ولله علي الناس حج البيت من استطاع إليه سبيلا ، ومن كفر فإن الله غني عم العالمين “
( آل عمران – آيه 97)
“And pilgrimage to the House is unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. As for him who disbelieves, Allah is Independent of all creatures” (Qura’n 3:97).
Performing Umra (a lesser pilgrimage) once in lifetime is also a duty that a Muslim should fulfil either in Hajj time or in any other time.
It is not an indispensable duty for every Muslim to visit the Mosque of the prophet in Al-Madina in Hajj-time or in any other time, but this is an advisable deed and who performs it will be recompensed by Allah.
The Muslim leaving for Madina intends to visit the mosque of the prophet. When he arrives there, he prays in mosque and then visits the tomb of the prophet (SAW). The visitor salutes the prophet politely and leaves the place adopting by that the same manner that the companions of the prophet used to do. He should not ask the prophet or supplicate for any thing from him. In fact those who supplicate the prophet (SAW) for help or ask him for what they need, are committing idolatry and the prophet is innocent of their ill deeds.
After visiting the prophet’s mosque the pilgrim visitor also visits the tombs of Baqeih. He should ruin his noble pilgrimage .The prophet (saw) said: whatever flesh that comes grow out of illicit gains is rather doomed to Hell-fire. It also advisable for the pilgrimage to select a man of good faith to accompany him on the pilgrimage- journey. The pilgrim, whether travelling by car or train, assumes the Ih-ram as soon as he arrives at the miqqat (the station for Ihram), and the pilgrim by plane, assumes Ihram when he approaches the miqqat. According to prophetic traditions, there are five mawaqit (five stations for Ihram):
Zul Hulaifa ( abyar ali): for pilgrims from madina.
Al- Jahfa, place near, rabigh, for people coming from the direc-tions of Syria, egypt and maghrib.
Qarn al- manazil, for peolep coming from najd, al-Taif and oth-er regions of that direction.
Zat Irq, for people coming from Iraq.
Yal, for people coming yemen.
These mawaqit are not only people coming from the above- mentioned regions, but for those who travel by these ways.
As for inhabitants of Makkah and those who live within the area bounded by these mawaqit, they assume their Ihram from their homes?
Manner of Ihram
It is advisable for the pilgrim to take a bath to cleanse and perfume himself before assuming Ihram clothes at the miqqat. The Ihram dress for the males consists of tow simple white seamless sheets, one to be wrapped round the lions, the other to cover the upper part of the body . the head should not be covered. Women have no special dressed in wide veiling and unalluring clothes. After assuming the Ihram, a women should neither veil her face with a seamed veil, nor use any seamed gloves to cover her hands.
The pilgrim, after assuming the Ihram dress, intends by heart to perform Umra and say:
“اللهم لبيك عمرة”
“Al lahum-ma labayka Omra“
“Hare ma I, O Allah at your Service intending to perform Umra“
In this way the pilgrim performs Hajj-Tamattu which is really excellent because the prophet (SAW) recommended his companions to perform this kind of Hajj. He have obliged them to abandon their Ihram clothes and make their visit to Kaaba an Umra, giving exception only to those who brought with them their “hady” (sacrifices), and carried on their Hajj by qiran, he same manner which the prophet himself adopted. The qarin (who performs Hajj by qiran) intends when he starts his pilgrimage rites by saying:
“اللهم لبيك عمرة وحج”
“AL Lahum-ma Labika Omratun wahajjan”
“Here am I, O Allah, I intend to perform Umra and Hajj”
Therefore he should not abandon his Ihram clothes and Ihram restrictions till he offers up his sacrifice on the feast-day (day of Ihram molation, 10th of zul-Hijah)