(JUMA) PRAYER

Friday prayer consists of sixteen rakats. It is fard-i ayn for every man to perform its two rakats. He who disbelieves or slights it becomes a kafir. It is a fard stronger than the early afternoon prayer. Friday prayer depends on two groups of conditions for being fard: The first group are the conditions of wujub, and the second group are the conditions of ada. If any one of the conditions of ada does not exist, the namaz will not be sahih. If the conditions of wujub do not exist, the namaz will still be sahih. The conditions of ada are as follows:

The first condition is to perform the namaz in a shahr (city). A shahr is a place whose jamaat cannot be accommodated by the largest mosque. The majority of fiqh savants in the Hanafi Madhhab (rahmatullahi ta’ala ‘alaihim ajmain) have agreed in this. Also it is written in Walwalji that this inference is sahih. Also a place that has a Muslim governor or commander powerful enough to carry out the commandments of the Shariat is called a shahr. Even if he can not fulfill all the commandments of the Shariat, it will be sufficient if he can protect the people’s rights and freedom, prevent faction and mischief, and can take back the rights of the oppressed from their oppressors. It is an excuse if a governor cannot have some of the fards carried out because of the government’s oppression.

[Those villages that have headmen confirmed and ratified by today’s governments or that have gendarmes, and the regions that are in today’s large cities are each a different city for Friday prayer according to both of the above definitions. It is permissible to perform Friday and ‘Iyd prayers in such villages and regions. Moreover, according to the Shafi’i Madhhab, forty people can perform Friday prayer anywhere. When the government gives permission for something permissible in one Madhhab, it becomes permissible in another Madhhab, too. When the government commands a mubah (something permitted by Islam), it becomes wajib to do it; and a mubah prohibited by the government becomes haram. Unaware of this fact, those who think only of today’s large cities when they hear the name shahr (city) speak ill of religious books. Writing such things as: “There is no need to explain that all the people in one city cannot go into one mosque. We are pointing out the fact that the points of view concerning Friday are incompatible with the religion and that there are some mistakes on the conditions of Friday prayer,” they attempt to blemish books of fiqh. This unpleasant attitude of theirs originates from misunderstanding books of fiqh and thereby giving Islam’s technical terms those meanings commonly used by the public. Shame upon those who slander Islamic savants instead of realizing their own ignorance! Even more wretched, though, are those who believe the falsely adorned and enthusiastic articles of such people and who think of these writers as religious men.]

Also, places which the people of a city have reserved as fields, cemeteries, of for recreation are counted as parts of a city

The second condition is to perform it with the permission of the president of the state, government, or of the governor. A Khatib appointed by them can appoint someone else as his deputy. No one other than those who have been deputizing one another in the process of time can conduct Friday prayer. When a person conducts it without permission, the namaz will be accepted if someone who has permission to conduct it performs the namaz by following him. If the governor of a city dies or cannot come to the mosque for one of such reasons as fitna or chaos, it is permissible for his deputy, assistant or for the judge of the law court to conduct the namaz. For these people as well as the governor are permitted by the government to conduct the people’s religious and worldly affairs. While they are present, an imam elected by the jamaat cannot conduct the Friday prayer. Yet if they cannot come to the mosque or if they are not permitted to administer religious affairs, the imam elected by the jamaat can conduct the namaz. Likewise, if the Sultan oppresses the people and prevents the jamaat from coming together without a good reason, they may meet together at some place and their imam may conduct the namaz. But they cannot perform it if the Sultan wants to change the status of the city. If the governors and judges in cities captured by disbelievers are administering them compatibly with the Shariat, such cities are not Dar-ul-harb. They are Dar-ul-Islam. In such cities the governor or the judge elected by the Muslims or any imam elected by them or by the jamaat can conduct the Friday prayer.

While describing the Qadis, that is, judges, the book Durr al-mukhtar says on the three hundred and eighth page of its fourth volume: “Those Islamic countries that are controlled by disbelievers are not dar-ul-harb, but they are dar-ul-Islam. For rules of disbelief have not yet been established in those places. Judges in such places are Muslims and their presidents are Muslims, too. They are obeying the disbelievers unwillingly. If Muslim administrators obey the disbelievers willingly they become sinful. In such countries it is permissible for the Muslim governors appointed by disbelievers to conduct the Friday and ‘Iyd prayers, to take haraj, to appoint judges and to marry orphans. This is because the people are Muslim. The governor’s obeying the disbelievers is compulsory and tricky. In such countries, if the governor presiding over the Muslims is a disbeliever too, the Friday and ‘Iyd prayers conducted by an imam elected by the Muslims and the religious decisions given by the judge chosen by them are acceptable. Also, the Muslims must elect a governor from among themselves. That governor appoints the judge and the Khatib (the imam who will conduct the Friday prayers). If the Muslims like the Muslim judge appointed by a governor who is a disbeliever, it is permissible for him to conduct the namaz and to give religious decisions. If a Muslim has revolted against the Sultan, captured a few places and established a government, it is permissible for him to appoint a judge and an imam.”

In the village of Mina near the blessed city of Mecca, Friday prayer can be performed during the time of hajj. For, during that time it becomes a city and the governor or the Amir of Mecca is there, too. To facilitate the affairs of the hajjis, the namaz of ‘Iyd in Mina has been forgiven. The official who is administering the duties of hajj cannot conduct the Friday prayer if he does not have special permission for doing so, too. It cannot be performed on Arafat because Arafat is an empty plain. It cannot become a city.

In any kind of city Friday prayer can be performed in several mosques. But some of the scholars of the Hanafi Madhhab and the majority of the scholars of the other three Madhhabs have said that Friday prayer cannot be performed in more than one mosques. And since the acceptability of Friday prayer is doubtful in a place that is doubtfully a city, we must perform four more rakats between the final sunnat of Friday prayer and the sunnat of the time by intending to perform the namaz of zuhr-i akhir, that is, the latest early afternoon prayer. When performing these four rakats we must add the phrase “which is fard for me” to our intention. We must not say, “which is fard to perform.” For, though the early afternoon prayer is fard at the time of noon it does not become fard to perform immediately. It becomes fard to perform it when there is only time enough to perform four rakats of namaz before the late afternoon prayer. Performing it [ada] does not become fard before that time. If a Friday prayer is not accepted, those four rakats do not become the fard of the early afternoon prayer of Friday when you say, “which is fard to perform.” They become the fard of the previous day’s early afternoon prayer. And since you performed it on Thursday the four rakats become supererogatory. But when you say, “the last early afternoon prayer which is fard for me,” they count for the fard of Friday’s early afternoon prayer. But if the Friday prayer is accepted you will have performed also the fard of the early afternoon prayer, in which case those four rakats will become supererogatory. For a sunnat can be performed with the intention of a fard. If you have any namaz of qada, you will not have performed it. If it should be claimed that when the Friday prayer is accepted the early afternoon prayer lapses, then you will have made your niyyat for Thursday’s early afternoon prayer, in which case, again, it will be supererogatory. If there is any early afternoon prayer which you have not performed before, you will not have made qada of it. If you intend, “To perform the last early afternoon prayer that is fard upon me, but which I have not performed,” and if the Friday prayer is accepted, the namaz stands for the qada of a namaz, so this intention is suitable. A person who does not have any namaz of qada must say additional suras in the last two rakats of the zuhr-i akhir, too. If the Friday prayer is not accepted and the namaz stands for the fard of the early afternoon prayer, it is not harmful to say suras in the fard. A person who has debts of early afternoon prayers does not say additional suras (in the last two rakats). For if the Friday prayer is not accepted the namaz stands for the fard of the early afternoon prayer; if it is accepted the namaz stands for a namaz of qada.

The third condition is to perform it during the time of the early afternoon prayer. As soon as the adhan for the early afternoon prayer is said a namaz of four rakats, (the first sunnat of the Friday prayer), is performed. Second, the second adhan is said inside the mosque. Third, the khutba is said. Fourth, two rakats, (the fard of Friday prayer), are performed in jamaat. Fifth, four rakats, (the last sunnat), are performed, and then the zuhr-i akhir is performed by intending, “to perform the last early afternoon prayer that is fard upon me but which I have not performed.” Finally, two rakats (the time’s sunnat) are performed. If the Friday prayer is not accepted these ten rakats become the early afternoon prayer. Next the Ayatalkursi, the tasbihs and duas are said. Our Prophet used to perform six rakats of sunnat after the two rakats of the fard of Friday prayer.

It is written on the five hundred and fifth page of Ashi’at ul-lama’at: “Amir al-Muminin Hadrat Ali (radiallahu anh) used to tell people to perform six more rakats after the fard namaz of Friday; and Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiallahu anhuma) is reported to have performed six additional rakats after the fard of Friday.” Al-allama ash-Shami Sayyid Muhammad Amin ibn ‘Abidin (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) writes on the subject of “i’tikaf” in the second volume of Radd al-mukhtar: “After the fard namaz of Friday, as communicated in Badayi’, four rakats of sunnat namaz shall be performed according to Imam-i azam, or six rakats according to the Imamayn. According to those who said that the Friday prayer should be performed in a single mosque, four rakats of zuhr-i akhir should be performed in addition. According to those who said that the performance of the Friday prayer in every mosque is permissible, these four rakats become a nafila, a mustahab; though it is not necessary to perform them, no one has said it should not be performed. It is better if they are performed.”

It is written in Fatawa-i Hindiyya: “It is not fard for slaves, women, travelers, and sick people to perform Friday prayer. There should be at least one man to listen to the khutba. The khutba is not permitted if there are no listeners or if all the listeners are women. It is obligatory that the jamaat should comprise of at least three men who have the qualifications to act as imams. Friday prayer is not sahih if they are women or children.”

The fourth condition is to say the khutba within the time of the early afternoon prayer. After the khutba, the person who said the khutba may appoint one of those who listened to the khutba to con duct the namaz on his behalf. He who has not listened to the khutba cannot conduct the namaz.

Our scholars have said that saying the khutba is like saying “Allahu akbar” when beginning the namaz, which implies that both must be said only in Arabic. There are also savants who have said that it can be said in Persian or that it is permissible to say it in any language, but then it is tahrimi makruh according to those savants. It is makruh for the khatib to say things other than amr-i maruf in the khutba, even in Arabic. The Khatib first says the “A’udhu” silently, then says the “hamd-u-thena,” the kalima-i shahadat, and the salat-u-salam loudly. Afterwards he preaches, that is, sermonizes about things that bring rewards and torment, and then says an ayat. He sits down and stands up again. After saying the second khutba, he prays for the Muslims instead of preaching. It is necessary (mustahab) for him to mention the names of the four Khalifas (Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat ‘Umar, Hadrat ‘Uthman, Hadrat Ali). It is not permissible to mention the names of the Sultan and the state authorities. It is haram to praise them with attributes they do not actually have. It has been said by savants that it is permissible to say prayers for them so that they will be just, benevolent, and victorious over their enemies, but when praying nothing must be said that might cause disbelief or haram. It is haram to insert a worldly speech into the khutba. The khutba must not be turned into a speech, a conference. He who praises cruel rulers and says that they are just, or who prays for enemies of religion when they are dead or alive, becomes a disbeliever. Also it is haram to praise a Muslim by lying. To preach in the khutba means to perform amr-i maruf and nahy-i anilmunkar. It does not mean to tell stories or to talk about politics, economics, or other worldly affairs. [Our Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) declared: “There will come such a time that monkey-natured, human- figured people will climb the minbar and teach you what is against the religion and their irreligiousness in the name of the religion.”] Khatibs, preachers, must be careful not to be among those people who are described in this hadith and not to serve as means for irreligiousness. Muslims must not listen to the khutbas and preachings of such people. It is written on the two hundred and eighty-first page of the explanatory book of Nur-al-izah, Tahtawi: “It is sunnat to say a short khutba, and it is makruh to say a long one.”

While explaining the khutba, the takbir of iftitah, and saying prayers in namaz, Ibni ‘Abidin says: “Saying the khutba in any language other than Arabic is like saying the takbir of iftitah in another language when beginning namaz. And this, in its turn, is like the other dhikrs of namaz. It is tahrimi makruh to say the dhikrs and the prayers within namaz in any language other than Arabic. It was prohibited by Hadrat ‘Umar.” He also says while explaining the wajibs of namaz: “Committing tahrimi makruh is a small sin, but a person who keeps doing it loses his justice.” It is written in Tahtawi: “A person who keeps committing small sins becomes sinful. We must not perform namaz behind those imams who are sinful or who commit bidats; instead, we must perform namaz in another mosque.” The Sahaba and the Tabiin always said the khutbas in Arabic both in Asia and in Africa. For it is bidat and makruh to say the khutba in another language. This was done even when those who listened did not know Arabic and did not understand the khutbas. Nor did they have any religious information. It was necessary to teach them. But still they said the khutbas in Arabic. It is said in the book Al-adillatul-kawati’ written by Muhammad Viltori, an Indian scholar and published in 1395 [1975]: “It is bidat to say the khutbas of Friday and ‘Iyd in any language except Arabic, either completely or partially. It is tahrimi makruh. An imam who continuously does so should not be followed when performing namaz in jamaat.” This fatwa is in Arabic. It was printed in Istanbul in 1396 [1976]. For six hundred years, Islamic savants in Turkey had been desiring to have the khutba said in Turkish so that the people could understand it, yet apprehending that the khutba might not be accepted, they did not allow it. Instead, they appointed Friday preachers who explained the meaning of the khutba before or after the namaz. Thus the jamaat learned what was said during the khutba.

Hadrat Sayyid Abdulhakim Arwasi (Quddisa sirruh) said: “To worship means to do the commandments. It is worship to read the Qur’an al-karim and to say the khutba. We have not been commanded to understand their meanings. Therefore, it is not an act of worship to understand them. Understanding the Qur’an al-karim requires learning the seventy-two subsidiary branches of knowledge along with its eight main branches. It is only after this that one begins to have the aptitude for understanding the Qur’an al-karim. And still, one can only understand it if Allahu ta’ala graces one with the lot. To say that everyone must understand the Qur’an al-karim is to belittle the religion. For understanding the Qur’an al- karim, a person with great talents has to work for ten years and one with average talents has to work for fifty years. Therefore, we with little ability can not understand it even if we study for a hundred years. In the Shariat, what is called knowledge is useful information. Useful information is the information that serves as a means for obtaining endless bliss, that is, for receiving Allah’s love. This information is called Islamic knowledge.”

The fifth condition is to say the khutba before the namaz. It must be said in the presence of discreet men who have reached the age of puberty. But it is not a condition for the jamaat to under stand it.

[It is written in Hindiyya, in Durr-ul-mukhtar, and in Imdad: “One man’s presence during the khutba is sufficient. If the entire jamaat is deaf or asleep, the khutba will be accepted. But the khutba listened by women without a man being present is not accepted.” As we have discussed earlier, it is not necessary for the jamaat to understand the khutba, and it is not even necessary for them to hear it. It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtar: “Saying the khutba in any other language is like saying Allahu akbar (in another language) when beginning namaz. The same applies to the prayers and tasbihs in namaz.” Ibni ‘Abidin, says, “According to Imam-i Azam, it is permissible for an imam who can recite them in Arabic to recite them in any other language. [It is written in Majma’ul-anhur that Imam-i Azam’s latest ijtihad was the same as that of the Imamayn.] It is written in Walwaljiyya that it is an act of worship to say the takbir of namaz and that Allahu ta’ala does not like its being said in another language. Therefore, even if it is permissible to say it wholly or partially in another language, it is tahrimi makruh within worships and tanzihi makruh outside of worships. It is unanimously reported that during salat to recite the ayat-i karima in other languages is not jaiz (permissible). The fatwa has also been given accordingly.” Writing their ijtihad agreeably with that of our Imamayn, the imams of the other three Madhhabs said that the khutba said in another language by a person who can read Arabic is not accepted. It is written in Badayi: “Saying the khutba partly in Arabic and partly in another language spoils the Arabic verse, which is makruh.” A person who says it in another language has deviated from the way of the Salaf-i-salihin and has committed a bidat. It is declared in the hundred and fourteenth (114) ayat of Nisa sura that the deviated people will go to Hell. And those who use a television or a loudspeaker in their worships should take this into account].

According to Imam-i Azam, by only saying “Alhamdu lillah” or “Subhanallah” or “La ilaha il-lal-lah” the khutba will have been completed. However, it is tanzihi makruh. According to the Imamayn, it is necessary to prolong it long enough to say the prayer of Attahiyyatu. It is sunnat to make two short khutbas. It is sinful not to sit between the two khutbas. Our Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would say an ayat or a sura in the Friday khutba. In the khutba or for any other occasion the A’udhu and the Basmala is said before saying a sura. According to the majority of the ‘ulama, only the A’udhu is said before saying an ayat. The Basmala is not said. It is sunnat for the Khatib to wear a black robe and to perform the sunnat on the right hand side of the minbar before the khutba. It is sunnat to say the khutba standing.

The sixth condition is to perform the Friday prayer in jamaat. Three men other than the imam in Hanafi, forty in Shafi’i, and twelve in Maliki, are sufficient. It is acceptable if the entire jamaat listening to the khutba leave and other people come and perform the namaz. The jamaat may also be formed by musafirs or by the invalid in Hanafi Madhhab

The seventh condition is for the mosque to be open for everybody. If the door is locked and the namaz is performed inside the mosque it will not be accepted. However, it does not hurt the namaz not to allow women into the mosque in order to prevent fitna.

There are nine conditions of wujub for the Friday prayer. That is, for it to be fard for a person requires the existence of the nine conditions that follow: 1- To live in a city or town. It is not fard for musafirs or for villagers. It is fard for a villager who is in a city and who hears the adhan. It is fard for a person whose house is one fersah, that is, one hour [six kilometers], from the outskirts of the city. 2- To be healthy. It is not fard for a sick person, for a person who looks after a sick person when he cannot leave, or for a very old person. 3- To be free. Friday prayer is fard for workers, for civil servants, for soldiers. Their bosses and directors cannot prohibit them from namaz. If the way is long so that they cannot work for a few hours, they can cut their wages. 4- To be a man. Friday prayer is not fard for women. 5- To be discreet and at the age of puberty. 6- Not to be blind. It is not fard for a blind person even if he has someone to lead him. But it is fard for a blind person who can walk along streets without anyone to help him and for a sick or squint-eyed person. 7- To be able to walk. Even if there are vehicles, it is not fard for a paralyzed person or for a person without feet. 8- Not to be in prison, not to have fear of an enemy, the government, or the cruel. 9- There must not to be too much rain, snow, or mud. And the weather must not to be too cold.

A man who does not have one of these conditions may perform Friday prayer if he wants to. The hadith ash-Sharifs declaring that Friday prayer is not fard for women are written in Tafsir-i Mazhari and in Mishkat-ul-masabih

A musafir or a sick person may conduct Friday prayer. It is haram for a person who has neglected a Friday prayer without a good excuse to perform the early afternoon prayer in a city before the Friday prayer is performed. But later it becomes fard for him to perform the early after noon prayer. It is makruh for those who have omitted the Friday prayer with a good excuse to perform the early afternoon prayer in a jamaat in the city.

A person who arrives while the imam is sitting or making the sajda-i sahw begins to follow the imam. When the imam makes the salam he stands up and completes the two rakats of Friday prayer. The same applies for a person who arrives late for the namaz of ‘Iyd.

After the imam climbs the minbar, it becomes haram for the jamaat to perform namaz or to talk. As the Khatib prays the jamaat must not say “amin” loudly. They say it silently. Also, they say the salawat not loudly but silently through their hearts. In short, everything that is haram to do while performing namaz is haram while listening to the khutba, too. It is haram also for those who are far behind and cannot hear the khutba. It is permissible to warn and save those who are in danger of a scorpion, a thief, or a well. It is good to warn such people by signaling with the hand or head. It is makruh for muazzins to shout prayers during the khutba.

It is fard for every Muslim who hears the first adhan for the Friday prayer to stop his work, shop ping, or whatever he is doing, and to go to the mosque for the namaz. The first adhan did not exist during the time of our Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). The adhan used to be said only in front of the minbar. Hadrat ‘Uthman (radiallahu anh) ordered the first adhan during his caliphate. Rasulullah’s minbar was on the left hand side of the mihrab and had three steps. [A person who stood towards the qibla in front of the mihrab would have had the minbar on his right hand side and the Hujra-i saadat on his left.] It is an unpleasant bidat to say the second part of the khutba after descending on the lower step and then to ascend back to the higher step.

It is tahrimi makruh for the Khatib to talk about worldly affairs between the khutba and the namaz. He may advise to follow the commandments and to avoid the prohibitions. If he delays the namaz by talking about things that are not a part of the khutba, his khutba will not be accepted. He will have to say the khutba again. It is permissible for a child to say the khutba, yet the namaz must be conducted by the imam. On Friday it is permissible to set out on a journey before noon. However, after noon it is makruh before performing the Friday prayer.

In cities conquered by warfare, such as the blessed Mecca and Bursa, the Khatib holds a sword in his left hand when he mounts the minbar. He says the khutba leaning on the sword.

If the adhan is said while a person is eating, he stops eating if otherwise the prayer time will expire. If he will only be late for the jamaat he does not stop eating. He performs namaz alone. But he must not miss the jamaat if it is a Friday prayer.

If a villager comes to the city for Friday prayer and to shop, if his intention for the namaz is stronger (than his intention for shopping) he attains the blessings of coming for the Friday prayer. The blessings of namaz are other than that. He will likely attain those blessings. Likewise is the case with every kind of worship mixed with some worldly intentions. [See the beginning of Hajj in the fifth fascicle.]

Before the khutba begins, it is permissible to pass through the lines (of Muslims) in order to be closer to the minbar and the mihrab, provided that you will not step on others’ shoulders and clothes. While the khutba is being said, it is haram to change your place or to vex those sitting beside you by pressing against them. It is haram to beg among the jamaat or to give alms to a person who does so. Such a beggar must be sent out of the mosque.

On Friday there is a moment at which any dua (prayer) will be accepted. There are many savants who say that that moment is between the khutba and the Friday prayer. During the khutba all prayers must be sent through the heart. It is not permissible to say them aloud. That moment is different for every city. Friday itself is more valuable than Friday night. During the day or at night there are many blessings in reciting Sura-i kahf. [Tafsir-i Mazhari].

It is sunnat to make a ghusl ablution, to put on fragrant scents (alcohol-free), to put on new, clean clothes, to have a haircut, to cut the nails, to burn incense in the mosque, to make Tabkir [to come to the mosque early] for Friday prayer. It is written in the fifth volume of Durr-ul-mukhtar: “It is sunnat for every Muslim to have a haircut and to cut his nails before or after Friday prayer on Fridays. It is better to do these after the prayer. As a matter of fact, these are done after the hajj. He who does not cut them on Friday has to cut them some other day. He must not wait until next Friday to cut them. In war time it is mustahab to grow the nails and moustache. It is mustahab to get clean by bathing and shaving the hairs in the arm-pits and pubes every Friday. It is permissible to clean the hairs with a chemical [with a razor blade, or Rosma powder] or by plucking. It is permissible to clean them every fifteen days, too. It is tahrimi makruh not to clean them for more than forty days.” It is written in the Imdad explanation of Tahtawi that it is mustahab to remove the hairs around the anus.

The sustenance of a person with long nails comes with difficulty, with trouble. A hadith declares: “A person who cuts his nails on Friday becomes safe from calamities for one week.”

It is bidat to shave the moustache. It is sunnat to clip the moustache so as to shorten it to the length of the eye-brows. It is sunnat to grow the beard as long as a small handful and to cut the parts longer than that. It is permissible to pull out the white hairs among the beard and moustache. It has been said by savants that the beard longer than one small handful is a sign of a weak mind.

[It is written within the subject concerning the fards of ghusl in [Tabyin], and in its explanation of Shilbi ‘rahmatullahi ta’ala ‘alaih’: “A hadith ash-Sharif, which exists in Muslim, declares, ‘Ten acts are sunnat: To clip the moustache, to grow the beard, to use miswak, madmada, (or mazmaza, to rinse out the mouth with water when making an ablution), istinshaq. (snuffing up water into the nostrils when making an ablution), to cut the nails, to wash the toes, to clean the arm-pits, to clean the pubes, and istinja with water.’ ” It is declared clearly in the hadith ash-Sharif that it is sunnat to grow a beard. It is sunnat to grow a beard as long as one handful and to cut it when it is longer than one handful. To shave the cheeks and to grow a beard only on the chin, as some people do, is to change the sunnat. Nor is it compatible with the sunnat to grow a beard less than a handful.

Maintaining a short beard with the intention of following the sunnat is bidat. It is haram. It becomes wajib to grow such a short beard as long as a handful. It is makruh to shave a beard just because it is customary and in order to do as all other people do. But when you live among disbelievers it is permissible and even necessary to shave it altogether for fear you will be mocked, oppressed, or lest you will commit an act of disbelief or haram, in order to carry out the commandments, earn your living, perform amr-i maruf and nahy-i anilmunkar to youngsters, serve Islam, help the oppressed, or to prevent fitna. These reasons above are excuses for not doing the sunnat. But they are not excuses for committing bidat.

It is written in the book Al-halal wal-haram: “A hadith ash-Sharif declares, ‘Act contrary to polytheists. Grow your beard!’ [The author of this book, Yusuf Qardawi, proclaims himself to be a laMadhhabi in its preface. Therefore, his statements cannot be witnesses. Yet he explains this hadith ash-Sharif correctly and compatibly with the Ahl-as-sunnat.] Ibni Taymiyya said that this hadith shows that it is haram to shave a beard. The book Fath, quoting from Iyad, says that it is makruh. There are also those who say that it is mubah. The truth is that the hadith ash-Sharif does not show that it is wajib to grow a beard. No savant has inferred that it is wajib to dye the beard from the hadith: ‘Jews and Christians do not dye their beard. Act contrary to them and dye (your beard)!’ These hadith ash-Sharifs show that it is mustahab. The Salaf-i salihin did not shave their beards; at that time it was customary to grow a beard.” He who slights the beard becomes a disbeliever. It is haram to shave in order to look pretty or to make your face bright like that of a woman or to shave the chin and grow hair on the cheeks. For it is haram for men to imitate women and for women to imitate men. It is written in Kimya-i saadat, at the end of the chapter dealing with wudu that it is makruh to shave the beard in order to look young and beautiful, without thinking of resembling a woman. It is makruh for women to shave their hair without an ‘udhr (excuse). It is haram for women to cut their hair like a man’s hair. Women have been prohibited by a hadith ash-Sharif to shave their heads or to gather their hair together to make a knot like the lump of a camel on top of the head or on the neck. This hadith ash- Sharif is quoted in Bariqa and Hadiqa, and in Yusuf Qardawi’s Al-halal wal-haram fil- Islam. If it is difficult for a woman to cover her long hair, or if it would cause fitna, it is permissible for her to have it cut and shorten it up to the ear lobes.

It is written in Hadiqat-un-nadiyya, on the hundred and forty-first page: “Sunnats are of two kinds: sunnat-i huda and sunnat-i zawaid. Sunnat-i huda are like i’tikaf in a mosque, calling the adhan or iqamat, and performing salat in jamaat. They are the characteristic traits of Islam, properties peculiar to this Ummat. [It is written in Ibni Abidin, at the end of the last volume that circumcision of children is also a sunnat of this kind.] If the inhabitants of a city abandon any one of these sunnats, they are to be fought against. The rawatib, that is, the muakkad sunnats, of three of the fard five daily prayers are of this kind, too. Sunnat-i zawaid involve doing the customs which Rasulullah, (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), habitually did in clothing, eating, drinking, sitting, housing, sleeping, walking, beginning the good deeds with the right-hand side, eating, and drinking with the right hand.” It is written in the second volume, page five hundred and eighty-two, “In some hadiths, dyeing the beard has been ordered. In some others, it has been prohibited. It has been declared: “Christians dye. You must not dye. Do not be like them!” This is why some of the salaf-i salihin dyed and some others did not. For, it is not wajib to obey this order or prohibition. Therefore, in this respect, the custom of the city in which one is living is to be followed. It is an act of notoriety not to follow the local customs and usage. It is makruh.” In the second volume, page three hundred and twenty-four of the book At-tafhimat by Shah Waliyyullah-i Dahlawi, an alim from India, the great alim Muhammad Thanaullah PaniPuti declares; “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to cover his head with a head-scarf, wear an antari (loose long robe), strapped shoes and the like. The Khalifa ‘Umar (radiallahu ‘anh) also ordered his soldiers in Azarbaijan to clothe themselves in this way. But, today, it is not customary to clothe one’s self in this way. It brings notoriety not to wear things customary in a country. It causes one to be pointed out, fitna. A hadith ash-Sharif declares: “Being singled out is an evil enough for any person.” Therefore, it is necessary to follow the Muslims’ customary usage in clothing. It was customary among believers in the time of Hadrat ‘Umar to wear loose long robes, head-scarfs and strapped shoes. Wearing them in this way did not cause distinction, fame or being singled out.” But it would cause trouble today. Imam-i Rabbani states in his three hundred and thirteenth letter: “It is understood from valuable Hanafi books that Muslim women used to wear antaris (long robes) open in the front. It is necessary for men to wear antaris closed in the front in places where women wear them open, and open in the front where women wear them closed. Fame brings calamities. It causes disasters.” In the two hundred and eighty-eighth letter, he states: ” ‘May Allah’s curse be upon the one who arouses mischief!’ is a hadith ash-Sharif.”

This is why Abdulhak-i Dahlawi (rahmatullahi ta’ala ‘alaih) in the first volume, page two hundred and twelve of Ashi’at-ul-lama’at, has said it is wajib to grow a beard as long as a handful in his explanation of the hadith ash-Sharif, “Ten beautiful things are Prophets’ sunnats.” The reason why he says wajib about growing a beard, separating it from the others while these ten things are clearly classified as sunnats in the hadith ash-Sharif, is because it will cause fitna to shave or to grow a beard shorter than a handful in places where it is customary to grow a beard. For, a person who incites fame or arouses fitna has been cursed in a hadith ash-Sharif. As shaving the beard will cause fitna in a place where it is a custom to grow a beard, so it may arouse fitna to grow a beard in places where it has become customary to shave the beard. Growing a beard shorter than a handful, however, is a bidat. In order not to cause this fitna or bidat, it becomes wajib for a Muslim to shave his beard to follow the custom of the country in which he lives. It is written on the one hundred and forty-eighth page of Al-Hadiqa: “Committing a bidat is more harmful than abandoning a sunnat. A bidat should be avoided while a sunnat need not be done.” It is necessary to follow the custom of a country in order not to cause fitna concerning the mubahs and the things that are permissible, and in the sunnat-i-zawaids. But, in doing things that are fard, wajib, sunnat-i huda, and in keeping away from harams, makruhs and bidats, customs are not to be followed. These may be altered only in cases involving appropriate excuses and to the extent prescribed in the fiqh books. This hadith ash-Sharif shows clearly that growing a beard is not Islam’s characteristic sign, that it is not peculiar to the din of Islam, and therefore, that it is not sunnat-i huda. Hence, it is seen that growing a beard is sunnat-i zawaid. For the professional men of the din, it is never permissible, that is, not even with an excuse to follow the customs, to omit the sunnat-i zawaid or the mustahabs. Such people should always grow a beard as long as a handful. It is an alteration of the sunnat to keep a beard shorter than a handful. Calling the short beard a sunnat is bidat, which is a grave sin. It is written in fiqh books that no savant said it is mubah to keep a beard shorter than a handful. A handful is four fingers in width. Measuring it is done by beginning from the lower lip. It is fard for a person who keeps a beard to wet the skin under the beard when performing a ghusl. If he does not wet it, his ghusl and his ablution and consequently his namaz will not be sahih.

It is permissible for men to dye their hair or beard any color except black. Also there are those savants who have said that it is permissible to dye it black, too. It is not permissible for them to dye their hands, feet, or nails. For it would be an act of imitating a woman. It is permissible for a woman to dye those parts with a dye, provided that it will not prevent them from being washed in an ablution and in a ghusl, and provided they will not show them to men.

It is written on the twelve hundred and twenty-ninth page of the second volume of the 1284 – Istanbul edition of the book Bariqa by hadrat Muhammad Hadimi (rahmatullahi ta’ala ‘alaih): “It is not permissible for women to shave their hair and for men to shave their beard. If a woman has a beard she is permitted to shave it. A hadith ash-Sharif declares: “Shorten your moustache! Grow your beard.” According to this command, it is against the sunnat to shave the beard. If this hadith ash-Sharif denoted wujub, it would be haram to shave the beard. The book Tatarhaniyya says, borrowing from Tajnis, that this hadith ash- Sharif means: ‘Do not shave your beard, nor grow it shorter than a small handful’. Such statements as, ‘A person who shaves his beard or who grows it shorter than a handful is not permitted to be the imam. Also the namaz which he performs alone becomes makruh. He is accursed and refused both in this world and in the next,’ which are said to have been derived from Tahtawi, or words like them that are said to have been derived from Tafsir-i Qurtubi, do not have any foundation, nor have they been proven to be true.” It is written on the thirteen hundred and thirty-sixth page, “It is also haram for women to slenderize their eye-brows by plucking them, and it is permissible for them to pull out or to shave the hairs growing on their foreheads, cheeks, and chins.” After cutting the hair, the beard or other hairs, the hairs cut must be buried or put on a grave or on a place that is not trodden upon, or in the sea. It is not sinful to throw them away. It is makruh to throw them into toilets or into wash-basins where kitchen utensils are washed. It is makruh to cut the nails with the teeth. It causes the disease called speckles. It is haram for women to show their cut parts to men.

It is sunnat for men to shave their head or to grow their hair and comb it by parting it into two. It is makruh for them to curl or plait their hair. It is written in the book Bahr-ur-raiq, in the chapter Al-karihiyya: “It is permissible for a man to shave the top of his head and grow the surrounding hair. Yet it is makruh to curl and plait it. To plait the hair is to be like some kafirs (disbelievers.)” Also it is seen that it is makruh, not haram to do something forbidden because it is like the customs of disbelievers. Therefore, the hadith ash-Sharifs “Do not be like mushriks (polytheists). Grow a beard!” and “Perform your salat with na’ls on. Do not be like the Jews!” shows that it is makruh, not haram to shave the beard and to perform salat with bare feet. See the chapter on the makruhs of namaz, article 25!

It is makruh to fast only on Fridays or to perform the namaz of tahajjud (the namaz performed after midnight) only on Friday nights. It is haram to perform any namaz when the sun is right on top, [that is, during the time beginning from the moment as long before the time of early afternoon prayer as the time called Tamkin till the noon prayer.] A more dependable word is that of those savants who say that it is haram to perform any namaz during that time even on Fridays.

On Fridays souls come together and meet one another. Graves are visited. Torment in graves is stopped on that day. According to some savants, believers’ torment does not begin again. But a disbeliever’s torment continues until Rising Day except on Fridays and in Ramadan. Those believers who die on that day or during that night are never tormented in their graves. Hell is not very hot on Friday. Hadrat Adam (alaihissalam) was created on Friday. He was taken out of Paradise on Friday. Those who will be in Paradise will see Allahu ta’ala on Fridays.

The following passage is translated from Riyad-un-nasihin:

Allahu ta’ala has assigned Friday to Muslims. He declares at the end of Juma sura: “O my slaves who have been honored with iman! When the adhan (adhan) of early afternoon prayer is said on Friday run to the mosque to listen to the khutba and to perform Friday prayer. Stop buying and selling! Friday prayer and the khutba are more useful to you than your other affairs. After performing Friday prayer you may leave the mosque and disperse so that you can do your worldly affairs. You work, and expect your sustenance from Allahu ta’ala. Remember Allahu ta’ala very often so that you will be saved!” After the namaz those who want to work may go out to work, and those who want to spend their time reading the Qur’an al-karim and praying may stay in the mosque. Buying and selling is sahih during the prayer time, yet it is sinful. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) declared: “If a Muslim makes a ghusl and goes to the mosque for Friday prayer, his week’s sins will be forgiven and he will be given blessings for each step.” A hadith ash-Sharif declares: “The most valuable of days is Friday. Friday is more valuable than the days of ‘Iyd and the day of Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram). Friday is the believers’ day of feast in this world and in the next.” Another hadith ash-Sharif declares: “Allahu ta’ala seals the hearts of those who do not perform the Friday prayer. They become unaware.” Another hadith declares: “If a person does not perform three Friday prayers though there is no hindrance, Allahu ta’ala seals his heart. That is, he can never do any good.” A person who does not perform a series of three Friday prayers without a good excuse becomes a munafiq. Abu Ali Daqqaq advised three things as he died: “On Friday perform a ghusl! Every night go to bed with an ablution! Remember Allahu ta’ala every moment!” A hadith ash-Sharif declares: “On Fridays there is a moment when any prayer a believer sends is not refused.” Some savants said that that moment is between the late afternoon and evening adhans. Another hadith ash- Sharif declares: “If you say a certain prayer, (which exists in the original hadith and in the Turkish original of Endless Bliss), before the morning prayer of Friday all your sins will be forgiven.” [But this is conditioned upon your having paid all your (material and spiritual) debts which you owe to creatures, performed the prayers of namaz which you have omitted, and ceased from committing harams.] Another hadith declares: “If a person says the sura of Ikhlas and the suras of Mu’awwazatayn seven times after Friday prayer Allahu ta’ala protects him against calamities, troubles and evil deeds for one week.” Worships done on Friday are given at least twice as many blessings as those that are given for worships done on other days. And sins committed on Friday are registered two-fold. A hadith ash-Sharif declares: “As Saturday was given to Jews and Sunday to Christians, Friday was given to Muslims. On this day there are uses, barakats and goodness for Muslims.”

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